Omeprazol en la profilaxis temprana de sangrado digestivo alto en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital Santo Tomás.

[Omeprazole in the early prophylaxis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the Intensive Care Unit of the Santo Tomás Hospital.]
DOI: 10.37980/im.journal.rmdp.20221914
Publicado
2022-08-30

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Autores/as

  • Jhoel Amores Hospital Santo Tomás. Panamá, Panamá.
  • Ana Belén Araúz Hospital Santo Tomás. Panamá, Panamá.

Palabras clave:

omeprazol, profilaxis, sangrado digestivo alto

Keywords:

omeprazole, prophylaxis, upper gastrointestinal bleeding, omeprazol, prophylaxis, upper gastrointestinal bleeding

Resumen

Introducción: La profilaxis de sangrado digestivo alto con omeprazol es una práctica frecuente en pacientes admitidos a la UCI. Actualmente se investigan complicaciones infecciosas relacionadas con esta terapia. Objetivo: determinar la frecuencia con que se utiliza la profilaxis temprana con omeprazol en pacientes admitidos a la UCI y describir sus resultados clínicos. El objetivo secundario fue determinar los factores de riesgo asociados a úlceras de estrés más frecuentes.Método: se realizó un estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo en una muestra de pacientes admitidos a la UCI del Hospital Santo Tomás en el año 2019. Resultados: Se incluyeron 114 pacientes, con mediana de edad de 40 años (IQR, 28-58), predominio del sexo masculino (60.53%) y una mediana de tiempo en UCI de 12 días (IQR, 6-24). 111 pacientes (97.37%) recibieron profilaxis temprana con omeprazol. En el grupo que recibió profilaxis temprana, se presentó sangrado digestivo alto en 2.70% de los casos; 40 pacientes (36.04%) presentaron neumonía nosocomial y 1 paciente (0.90) presentó infección por Clostridium difficile. En la muestra estudiada, 110 pacientes (96.49%) utilizaron ventilación mecánica; 85 pacientes (74.56%) presentaron shock y 44 pacientes (38.60%) desarrollaron lesión renal aguda. Conclusiones: La profilaxis temprana con omeprazol es una práctica habitual en pacientes admitidos a UCI. El sangrado digestivo alto se presentó con poca frecuencia. Un tercio de los pacientes que recibió este tratamiento presentó neumonía nosocomial, siendo la infección por Clostridium difficile una rara complicación. El uso de ventilación mecánica y el shock fueron los factores de riesgo de úlceras de estrés más frecuentes.


Abstract

Introduction: Upper gastrointestinal bleeding prophylaxis with omeprazole is a frequent practice in patients admitted to the ICU. Infectious complications related to this therapy are currently being investigated. Objective: to determine the frequency with which early omeprazole prophylaxis is used in patients admitted to the ICU and to describe its clinical outcomes. The secondary objective was to determine the risk factors associated with the most frequent stress ulcers. Methods: a retrospective, descriptive study was conducted in a sample of patients admitted to the ICU of Hospital Santo Tomás in 2019. Results: 114 patients were included, with a median age of 40 years (IQR, 28-58), male predominance (60.53%) and a median time in ICU of 12 days (IQR, 6-24). 111 patients (97.37%) received early prophylaxis with omeprazole. In the group that received early prophylaxis, upper gastrointestinal bleeding occurred in 2.70% of cases; 40 patients (36.04%) presented nosocomial pneumonia and 1 patient (0.90) presented Clostridium difficile infection. In the sample studied, 110 patients (96.49%) used mechanical ventilation; 85 patients (74.56%) presented shock and 44 patients (38.60%) developed acute kidney injury. Conclusions: Early prophylaxis with omeprazole is a common practice in patients admitted to ICU. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding occurred infrequently. One third of the patients who received this treatment presented nosocomial pneumonia, being Clostridium difficile infection a rare complication. The use of mechanical ventilation and shock were the most frequent risk factors for stress ulcers.

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